P. Zwicker1,8, J. Schleusener2,8, S.B. Lohan2, L. Busch2,3, C. Sicher1, S. Einfeldt4, M. Kneissl4,5, A.A. Kühl6, C.M. Keck3, C. Witzel7, A. Kramer1 & M.C. Meinke2
Sci. Rep., vol. 12, art. 2587, doi:10.1038/s41598-022-06397-z (2022).
A newly developed UVC LED source with an emission wavelength of 233 nm was proved on bactericidal efficacy and skin tolerability. The bactericidal efficacy was qualitatively analysed using blood agar test. Subsequently, quantitative analyses were performed on germ carrier tests using the MRSA strain DSM11822, the MSSA strain DSM799, S. epidermidis DSM1798 with various soil loads. Additionally, the compatibility of the germicidal radiation doses on excised human skin and reconstructed human epidermis was proved. Cell viability, DNA damage and production of radicals were assessed in comparison to typical UVC radiation from discharge lamps (222 nm, 254 nm) and UVB (280-380 nm) radiation for clinical assessment. At a dose of 40 mJ/cm2, the 233 nm light source reduced the viable microorganisms by a log10 reduction (LR) of 5 log10 levels if no soil load was present. Mucin and protein containing soil loads diminished the effect to an LR of 1.5-3.3. A salt solution representing artificial sweat (pH 8.4) had only minor effects on the reduction. The viability of the skin models was not reduced and the DNA damage was far below the damage evoked by 0.1 UVB minimal erythema dose, which can be regarded as safe. Furthermore, the induced damage vanished after 24 h. Irradiation on four consecutive days also did not evoke DNA damage. The radical formation was far lower than 20 min outdoor visible light would cause, which is classified as low radical load and can be compensated by the antioxidant defence system.
1 Institute of Hygiene and Environmental Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, Ferdinand-Sauerbruch-Str., 17475 Greifswald, Germany
2 Center of Experimental and Applied Cutaneous Physiology, Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Allergology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin and Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin, Germany
3 Department of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Robert-Koch-Str. 4, 35032 Marburg, Germany
4 Ferdinand-Braun-Institut gGmbH, Leibniz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin, Germany
5 Institute of Solid State Physics, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin, Germany
6 iPATH.Berlin-Immunopathology for Experimental Models, Core Facility of the Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin and Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin, Germany
7 Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin and Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin, Germany
8 These authors contributed equally: Paula Zwicker and Johannes Schleusener
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