Influence of Microwave Probes on Calibrated On-Wafer Measurements

G.N. Phung1, F.J. Schmückle1, R. Doerner1, B. Kähne1, T. Fritzsch2, U. Arz3, and W. Heinrich1

Published in:

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 67, no. 5, pp. 1892-1900 (2019).

Copyright © 2019 IEEE - All rights reserved. Personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint/republish this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or to reuse any copyrighted component of this work in other works must be obtained from the IEEE.


On-wafer probing with ground-signal-ground (GSG) probes contributes a variety of side effects, which are related to the measured line type, the carrier material, the layout with the neighboring structures, and the probe. Thus, the size and shape of the probe together with the measured line type and the neighboring circuits influence the quality of the calibrated measured result. This paper presents corresponding results when using the multiline-thru-reflect-line (mTRL) calibration, which is commonly accepted as one of the most accurate calibration algorithms, and concentrates on the impact of the probe construction together with neighboring elements, for the most common planar transmission lines, coplanar waveguides (CPWs), and thin-film microstrip lines (TFMSLs). For the first time, design guidelines with regard to the layout, the measurement environment, and the construction of the probes are given.

1 Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik (FBH), 12489 Berlin, Germany
2 Fraunhofer Institut für Zuverlässigkeit und Mikrointegration (IZM), 13355 Berlin, Germany
3 Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), 38116 Braunschweig, Germany

Index Terms:

Calibration, coplanar waveguide (CPW), electromagnetic field simulation, multiline-thru-reflect-line (mTRL), on-wafer probing, probes.