Impact of Carrier Nonpinning Effect on Thermal Power Saturation in GaAs-Based High Power Diode Lasers
IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 1501910 (2019).
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A root-cause analysis of thermal power saturation in broad area diode lasers is presented. Thermal power saturation limits in largest parts the optical power in continuous wave (CW) driven diode lasers, as junction temperature increases with bias. Accordingly, gain decreases and, hence, the carrier density in the quantum well increases (nonpinning) to compensate the low gain and the additional photon loss. A systematic variation of epitaxial designs was used to experimentally clarify the impact of modal gain on the temperature dependence of differential internal efficiency and optical loss. To account for this effect in simulation, a rate equation model was applied to determine temperature dependent slope efficiency. Longitudinal spatial hole burning (LSHB) causes an asymmetry of the carrier density profile, leading to high nonlinear carrier loss at the back facet, but also the average carrier density increases with temperature, enhancing the impact of LSHB. This enhancement effect leads to rapid degradation of internal differential efficiency with temperature and, hence, early power saturation. The extreme triple asymmetric vertical design is introduced, that enables devices to be realized that show minimized degradation of internal differential efficiency with temperature and therefore increased performance in CW operation.
1 Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, 12489 Berlin, Germany
2 TRUMPF Laser GmbH, 71254 Ditzingen, Germany
CW lasers, laser materials-processing applications, optical pumping, semiconductor device modeling, optoelectronic devices.